Our manuscripts were observed under magnification using a Leica M80 stereomicroscope equipped with a 1.0x planar lens, yielding magnification ranging from 7.5x to 60x. A Canon camera was fitted onto the microscope via a T2 attachment and extension, allowing us to record high-resolution digital images of the observed areas.

Occasionally we observed manuscripts under raking light, i.e. by placing the light at an oblique angle rather than directly above the page, in order to better record the surface texture of the paint layers.

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