The Missal of Cardinal Angelo Acciaiuoli

Use of yellow pigments

Artists' Materials

In the letter shapes of the initials themselves and in the border ornamentation, however, lead-tin yellow is substituted on some folios by a lead oxide or by a yellow dye, which in most cases are also mixed with azurite to provide green. These differences suggest that the letter shapes and borders were completed by assistants, while the main artists painted only the images within the initials and the large figures or heads occasionally found in the borders.

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Detail of St Michael under magnification (7.5x). FORS analysis (below) reveals a mixture of lead white and earth pigments in the flesh tones, as well as the presence of egg yolk used as a paint binder.
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Detail of the face in the lower border under magnification (7.5x).
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Detail of the dragon under magnification (7.5x).
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The yellow initial was surprisingly found to contain lead-tin yellow, as revealed by XRF analysis. This pigment was reserved for yellow areas within the miniatures on other folios.
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The shiny wings of the bird in the lower border were found to contain sulphur (S) and tin (Sn) by XRF analysis, suggesting the presence of mosaic gold.

The decoration of this folio exemplifies Hand D’s robust facial types and his preference for large heads, instead of full figures, engulfed by or sprouting from the foliage (hotspots 1 and 2).