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​New endleaves were made from calfskin parchment.  The endleaves not only protect the opening and closing leaves of the original manuscript but play an important role in the mechanical work of the binding as it is opened by a reader.  The endleaves used in the binding for MS 251 have joints of alum-tawed skin sewn on to the bifolium of parchment so that the internal joint is at once flexible and strong, and therefore able to transfer the levering action of the board being opened into the spine of the book.  Fine linen thread is used to carry out this sewing.  Great care is taken to ensure that the stitches fall exactly on the fold, without appearing in the joint of the finished endleaf.  A paper waste-sheet is incorporated into the structure to protect the parchment from becoming soiled during the rest of the binding process, and is removed just before the joints are put down.