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Johannes Christianus Schotel (1787-1838), A seascape with fishermen in the foreground c.1830-35, black chalk, pen and ink with coloured washes on buff paper. Bequeathed by Sir Bruce Ingram, 1963, PD.707-1963

By the nineteenth century marine painting had long come to represent the national taste and national School in Dutch art. From 1810 to 1812, Schotel spent time in the studio of the marine artist, Martinus Schouman (1770-1848), and had previously joined the Dordrecht drawing society, Pictura, becoming its director in 1831.Schotel greatly admired the paintings of his predecessors Ludolf Backhuysen and Willem van de Velde the Younger. As his work matured he moved away from the depiction of ships to scenes of rough seas with large, ominous clouds, as seen here.

Petrus Johannes Schotel (1808-65), A sea battle (the battle of the Ness 30 Nov. 1652), pen and ink, grey-yellow wash, on paper. Bequeathed by Sir Bruce Ingram, 1963, PD.712-1963

The Battle of Dungeness took place near Kent on 30 November 1652 during the First Anglo-Dutch War (1652-54). The wars, of which there were four in total, were between England and the Dutch Republic as they fought to monopolise trade routes and colonies. Schotel has depicted the nations in the midst of combat with a sunken ship bearing the English coat of arms placed prominently in the foreground.
Petrus was the son of the marine painter Johannes Christianus Schotel, whose work can be seen above. He was born in Dordrecht but travelled to France, Belgium and Germany. Along with his father, Petrus represents a later generation of marine artists who were greatly inspired by those that came before them. 


Everhardus Koster (1817-92), A beach scene at Scheveningen probably before 1859, watercolour on paper. Bequeathed by Sir Bruce Ingram, 1963, PD.443-1963

Scheveningen is a fishing village on the northern Dutch coast near The Hague. Its bustling beach was frequently painted by seventeenth-century artists including Simon de Vlieger, whose drawings are included in this online exhibition, Jan van Goyen (1596-1656) and Adriaen van de Velde (1636-72) as well as Koster’s contemporary Andreas Schelfhout (1787-1870). In contrast to their paintings, Koster depicts a much calmer beach using a subdued palette of browns and greys.
Koster was born in The Hague, where he was taught by Bartholomeus Johannes van Hove (1790-1880). After a short but successful career, he was forced to stop painting when he lost the sight in his right eye in 1859. He then took up the position of curator at the Museum of Modern Art, Haarlem before being appointed its director in 1876.