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You are in: Online Resources > Online Exhibitions > Samplers > Bibliography


The following archives and sources were consulted for this online exhibition:

Record Offices and Archives

Letters, Bills and Receipts relating to Kirtling National School, P101/25/8 and 15, Cambridgeshire Archives.

Newspaper Announcements of Haverhill Dame School, BNP 2/7/1806; BNP 6/1/1808; BNP 3/5/1815, Suffolk Record Office.

'Haverhill Jubilee Schools', Bury and Norwich Post, BNP 1/7/1812, Suffolk Record Office.

Minute Book for years 1824-1843 for Freemasons' School GBR 1991 RMIG 1/1/1/5, The Library and Museum of Freemasonry.

Register of the Children admitted into the Royal Cumberland Free Mason's School, GBR 1991 RMIG 3/2/1/1, The Library and Museum of Freemasonry.

Minute book, 2691/1/1, Westminster Archives, London.


Browne, Clare, and Jennifer Wearden, Samplers from the Victoria and Albert Museum (London: V&A Publications, 1999).

Christie, Mrs Archibald, Samplers and Stitches: A Handbook of the Embroiderer's Art (London: B. T. Batsford Ltd., 1921).

Colby, Averil, Samplers: Yesterday and Today (London: B. T. Batsford Ltd, 1964).

Humphrey, Carol A., Quaker School Girl Samplers ([S. I.]: Needleprint, 2006).

Humphrey, Carol A., Samplers (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997).

Phelan, Dorothy Bromiley, Eva-Lotta Hansson and Jacqueline Holdsworth, The Goodhart Samplers ([S. I.]: Needleprint, 2008).

Scott, Rebecca, Samplers (Oxford: Shire Publications Ltd, 2009).

Sebba, Anne, Samplers: Five Centuries of a Gentle Craft (London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1979).

Tarrant, Naomi E. A., The Royal Scottish Museum Samplers (Edinburgh: Crown, 1978).

Thomas, Mary, Mary Thomas's Dictionary of Embroidery Stitches (London: Hodder & Stoughton Limited, 1984).

Witney Antiques, Stitched in Adversity: Samplers of the Poor (Oxford: Witney Antiques, 2006).

Witney Antiques, Tis Education Forms the Common Mind School, Scholars and Seminaries (Oxford: Witney Antiques, nd).

Needlework Instruction

A Lady, The Sampler; or a System of Teaching Plain Needlework in Schools (London: G. C. Caines, 1850).

Bristol and District Teachers' Association, Draft of the Needlework Scheme Drawn up by the Needlework Sub-Committee (n.d.).

Manual of the System of Teaching Needlework in the Elementary Schools of The British and Foreign School Society, 2nd ed. (London: J. and A. Arch, 1821).

National Society: Instructions of Needlework and Knitting, 2nd ed. (London: Roake and Varty, 1838).

Educating the Poor

Primary Sources

Bell, Andrew, An Experiment in Education, Made at the Male Asylum of Madras (London: Cadell and Davies, 1797).

Trimmer, Sarah, Reflections upon the Education of Children in Charity Schools; with the Outlines of a Plan of Appropriate Instruction for the Children of the Poor (London: T. Longman and J. and F. Rivington, 1792).

Secondary Sources

Bristow, Adrian, Dame Schools (Chester: IMOGEN, 2000).

Hans, Nicholas, New Trends in Education in the Eighteenth Century (London: Routledge, 1951).

Hilton, Mary, and Jill Shefrin (eds) Educating the Child in Enlightenment Britain: Beliefs, Cultures, Practices (London: Ashgate, 2009).

Hilton, Mary, Women and the Shaping of the Nation's Young: Education and Public Doctrine in Britain 1750-1850 (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2007).

Jones, M. G., The Charity School Movement: A Study of Eighteenth Century Puritanism in Action (London: Frank Cass and Co Ltd, 1964).

Schools in Exhibition

Ackworth and John Fothergill

Primary Source

Thompson, Henry, A History of Ackworth School during its first hundred years (London: Samuel Harris and Co, 1879).

Secondary Source

DeLacy, Margaret, 'Fothergill, John (1712-1780)', Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004; online ed. Oct. 2007 [, accessed 15 April 2013].

Brierley Hill and Kingswinford Parish

Challands, Christine, A Lifetime of Change: Kingswinford Parish 1775-1850 (Dudley Teachers' Centre, 1974).

Bristol Orphan Houses and George Müller

Primary Sources

Centenary Memorial 1805-1905 (Bristol: J. Wright and Co., 1905).

Taylor, W. Elfe, 'Extract from' The Bristol Orphan Houses (London: Morgan and Scott, 1871).

Secondary Source

Pierson, Arthur T., George Müller of Bristol (Massachusetts: Hendrickson Publishers, Inc., 2008).


Lyon, William, Chronicles of Finchampstead in the County of Berkshire (London: Longmans, Green & Co., 1895).

Freemasons' and Bartholomew Ruspini

Cowburn, Lorna, Polished Cornerstones: a History of the Royal Masonic School for Girls 1788-2009 (London: MPG Biddles, 2009).

Hillam, Christine, 'Ruspini, Bartholomew (c.1728-1813)', Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004; online ed. Jan. 2008 [, accessed 22 April 2013].

Morgan, Giles, Freemasonry (Harpenden: Pocket Essentials, 2007).


Horne, Michael, 'Early Education in Haverhill', Haverhill Historian, vol. 5, no. 5 (2001).


Lewis, C. P., A History of Kirtling and Upend: Landowners and People in a Cambridgeshire Parish 1000-2000 (Magazine Lane Press for Kirtling and Upend, 2000).

Lewis, C.P., 'Kirtling', in The Victoria History of the Counties of England: A History of Cambridgeshire and the Isle of Ely, ed. A. J. Fletcher (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002), vol. X.

St Clement Danes

Maplestone, Peter, St Clement Danes School: 300 Years of History (London: Trustees of the St Clement Danes Educational Foundation, 2000).

Gender and Needlework

Primary Sources

Browning, Elizabeth Barrett, 'Aurora Leigh', ed. Kerry McSweeney [1857] (Oxford: OUP, 1993), Book 1.

Hood, Thomas, 'The Song of the Shirt', Punch, or the London Charivari, 16 December 1843.

Wollstonecraft, Mary, A Vindication of the Rights of Woman, with Strictures on Political and Moral Subjects, 2nd ed. (London: J. Johnson, 1792), vol. I.

Secondary Sources

Wakeley, Christina, The Ghost in the Looking Glass: The Victorian Seamstress (London: Peter Owen, 1981).

Zakreski, Patricia, Representing Female Artistic Labour, 1848-1890: Refining Work for the Middle-Class Woman (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2006).