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Bacchus

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Title/s

Bacchus

Maker/s

van Tetrode, Willem Danielsz (sculptor) [ULAN info: b. Delft 1525; d. Arnsberg 1580]

Collection

C.B. Marlay

Category

sculpture

Name

figure

School/Style

Renaissance

Description

Copper alloy, probably bronze, cast, chased, and polished. Bacchus stands with his left leg placed in front of the right. His left arm is raised and holds a bunch of grapes. His head is bent and turned to the left as he gazes down at his right hand, which once seems to have held a cup. His hair is entwined with vines.

Production Notes

Previously attributed by Anthony Radcliffe to Hubert Gerhard. The bronze has been attributed to Tetrode working in Rome or in Delft after his return there.

Production Place

Rome (sculptor) (place) ()

Italy (sculptor) (country)

Delft (sculptor) (place) ()

Netherlands (sculptor) (country)

Technique Description

copper alloy, probably bronze, cast, and polished

Dimensions

height: (whole): 50.5 cm
width: (whole): 15.5 cm
depth: (whole): 17.0 cm

Period

3rd quarter 16th century

Date

circa 1570 to 1575

Provenance

bequeathed: Marlay, Charles Brinsley 1912 (Filtered for: Applied Arts collection)

Charles Brinsely Marlay by 1868

C.B. Marlay Bequest

Documentation

  1. (1868) The National Exhibition of Works of Art, Leeds (Yorks.) [page: p. 213]
    [comments: Publ. p. 213, no. 839]
  2. Middeldorf, Ulrich Eine Bronze von Giovanni Bologna,
    Source title: Pantheon (May 1933)
    [comments: Publ. repr.]
  3. Venturi, A. (1937) Storia dell'Arte Italiana. X: La Scultura del Cinquecento, part 3, Milan [page: p. 718]
    [comments: Publ. p. 718]
  4. Dhanens, E. (1956) Jean Bologne-Giovanni Bologna Fiammingo, Brussels [page: p. 100]
    [comments: Publ. I, p. 100 (under no. VII) (rough translation by C. van H. & RAB), vii: pp. 98-101, pl. 45 Bacchus of Latanzio Cortese 'Two small bronzes are being connected falsely with the Bacchus and are attibuted to Jean Bologne. One was formerly in the Bisschoffsheum Palace Collection (W. Gramberg 1936, pl. 11). The other is in the Fitzwilliam Museum at Cambridge (Ulrich Middledorf, 1933; A Venturi, Roman X, 3-1937, p. 718). I have not seen the first. Judging it from the photograph (reproduction) it is difficult to regard it as a work by Jean Bologne because it lacks buoyancy in the posture, the block-like base, and the apparent lack of careful finishing. The Bacchus at Cambridge is certainly not work by Jean Bologne. Composition, posture, and movement lack the firm, balanced contraposto of the master; the motifs of the movement of the arms and head converge in the same direction. The attitude is hesitant and lacks buoyancy and tension. It is impossible to recognise in it the qualities of Jean Bologne's execution. The face is sharp; the eyes are drawn in, and the head-dress is chiselled decoratively, but not modelled plastically. Details, like the nails, show uneven finish. As a whole the little bronze lacks that marvellous and natural life found in Jean Bologne's work. It could very well be ascribed to Caccini.' [The sense of the Flemish base is such that a definite attribution is being suggested, although it sounds hesitant in translation]]
  5. (2005) Treasures of the Fitzwilliam Museum, London: Scala [page: 139]
    [comments: Publ.]
  6. Winter, Carl (1958) The Fitzwilliam Museum, An Illustrated Survey, London: Trianon Press
    [comments: Publ. (n.p), no. 51, repr.]
  7. Sotheby's (1958) Sotheby's Sale Catalogue, 12th December 1958, London [page: p. 16] 12th December 1958)
    [comments: Publ. p. 16 (under lot 61)]
  8. (1964) Stiftung zur Förderung der Hamburgischen Kunstsammlungen. Erwerbungen 1963, Hamburg [page: pp. 62-65]
    [comments: Publ. pp. 62-65 (entry by C. Theuerkauff)]
  9. Möller, Lise Lotte (1964) Über die Florentinische Einwirkung auf die Kunst des Johann Gregor von der Schardt, Munich [page: pp. 191-204]
    Source title: Studien zur Toskanischen Kunst, Festschrift für Ludwig Heinrich Heydenreich zum 23. März 1963 (
    [comments: Publ. pp. 191-204]
  10. (1965) Jahrbuch der Hamburger Kunstsammlungen, 10, 1965, Hamburg [page: p. 194]
    [comments: Publ. p. 194 (under entry on Hamburg Bacchus)]
  11. Ciardi Dupré dal Poggetto, M.G. (1981) Aspetti della Scultura Fiorentina al Tempo della Formazione di Francesco Mochi, Florence [page: p. 21]
    Source title: Francesco Mochi 1580-1654 (
    [comments: Publ. p. 21]
  12. Radcliffe, A.F. (1985) Schardt, Tetrode and some possible sculptural sources for Goltzius, Stockholm [page: pp. 99-100]
    Source title: Netherlandish Mannerism (1985)
    [comments: Publ. pp. 99-100, 102-3, fig. 1]
  13. Nijstad, Jaap (1986) Willem Danielsz. van Tetrode, Amsterdam [page: p. 276]
    Source title: Renaissance en Reformatie en de Kunst in de Noordelijke Nederlanden, Nederlands Kunsthistorich Jaarboek (
    [comments: Publ. p. 276, no. 30]
  14. (1989 - 90) Treasures from the Fitzwilliam: ''The Increase of Learning and other great Objects of that Noble Foundation'', Cambridge (Cambs.) [page: p. 39]
    [comments: Publ. Cat. no. 42, p. 39 (entry by R. Crighton)]
  15. Honnens de Lichtenberg, Hanne (1991) Johan Gregor van der Schardt. Bildhauer bei Kaiser Maximilian II, am dänischen Hofe und bei Tycho Brahe, Copenhagen [page: pp. 112-115]
    [comments: Publ. pp. 112-115]
  16. (1995) Von Allen Seiten Schön, Bronzen der Renaissance und des Barock, [page: pp. 328-9]
    [comments: Publ. Cat. no. 99, pp. 328-29, repr. (entry by U. Berger)]
  17. Halsema-Kubes, W. (1996) Tetrode, Willem Danielsz. van, London [page: p. 531]
    Source title: The Dictionary of Art, ed. Jane Turner (
    [comments: Publ. p. 531]
  18. Wengraf, Patricia Review of Berlin 1995, [page: p. 5]
    Source title: The Art Book Review Quarterly (Spring 1996)
    [comments: Publ. p. 5]
  19. Avery, Victoria (2002) Renaissance and Baroque Bronzes from the Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge, London: Gli Ori [page: pp. 212-217]
    [comments: Publ. pp. 212-217, 295, no. 34. Attributed to Delft, c. 1570s]
  20. Scholten, Frits (2003) Willem van Tetrode, alter Praxiteles, Amsterdam: Rijksmuseum [page: pp. 29-30]
    Source title: Willem van Tetrode, Sculptor (c.1525-1580): Guglielmo Fiammingo Scultore (
    [comments: Publ. Illustrated, p. 30, no. 26, p. 29 and 32 discussion, - Catalogue by, Bieke van der Mark & Frits Scholten, p. 119, no. 13. The authors attribute the model to Rome or Florence]
  21. Bewer, Francesca G. (2003) Towards a History of Tetrode's Casting Technique, Amsterdam: Rijksmuseum [page: pp. 100-1]
    Source title: Willem van Tetrode, Sculptor (c.1525-1580): Guglielmo Fiammingo Scultore (
    [comments: Publ. Illustrated, radiograph, p. 100, no. 109, with discussion on p. 101, and also mentioned on p. 104]
  22. Weihrauch, H. (1956) Die Bildwerke in Bronze und in Anderen Metallen, München [page: pp. 150-1]
    [comments: Cf. See a bronze attributed to Adrien de Vries, cat. no. 181, p. 150: pl. 181, p. 151.This was pointed out by Ian Robertson of the Ashmoleon, Oxford (H. 51.8 cm)]
  23. Christie's, Paris (2009) Collection Yves Saint Laurent et Pierre Bergé, Sculptures, Objets d'Art, Art d'Asie, Archéologie et Mobilier, Colmar, Paris: Christie's in association with Pierre Bergé & Associés [page: 410-12] 25 February 2009)
    [comments: Cf. pp. 410-12, lot 639 another paired with a Faun (attributed to Adriaen de Vries), described as probably German, 17th century. The Fitzwilliam's example is mentioned as 'beautifully cast' and another example in Hamburg.]
  24. Sotheby's (1958) Sotheby's Sale Catalogue, 12th December 1958, London [page: p. 16] 12th December 1958)
    [comments: Cf. no. 61, p. 16, and illustration facing. Similar to the Fitzwilliam Bacchus, and attributed to Johann Gragor van der Schardt. H. 18 3/4 in. German, 2nd half of the 16th century. J. Pope-Hennessy (Victoria and Albert Museum) says this attribution is entirely false. Sold to R. Hallet for £1,450, lot 1963 K&GW. Museum Hamburg inv. nr. ST.183/1963/38]
  25. Panayotova, Stella (2008) I Turned It Into a Palace, Sydney Cockerell and the Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge (Cambs.): The Fitzwilliam Museum [page: 99]
    [comments: Publ. p. 99 in colour]

Other Notes

First recorded, already with Marlay, in the National Exhibition of Works of Art, Leeds, 1868, as 'Florentine Cinquecento', this bronze has been ascribed to a bewildering variety of hands, ranging from Giambologna to Johann Gregor van der Schardt. The only other example now known, in the Museum für Kunst und Gewerbe, Hamburg (inv. nr. St. 183/1963,38) is still given to Schardt. In 1985 A.F. Radcliffe advanced the present attribution on the basis of technical factors linking this and the Hamburg bronze to the Hercules and Antaeus group in the Victoria and Albert Museum, and thence to a group of bronzes now divided between the Bargello and the Uffizi. These are documented as by Tetrode (known in Italy as Guglielmo di Daniele Fiammingo), for a studiolo signorile to the commission of Gianfrancesco Orsini in the late 1550s. Tetrode is recorded as working with Cellini in 1549, and later with Guglielmo della Porta. After some time spent in Florence in the 1560s he returned to his native Delft in 1568, leaving to become sculptor to the Archbishop-Elector of Cologne in 1574. He seems to have left models and moulds behind: in the 1624 inventory of the Delft goldsmith Thomas Cruse there are a number of items by him. Of greatest interest in the present context is an entry for '1 Bacchus form, mit 1 form van der Tiger van Tettero', raising the intriguing possibility that this Bacchus was originally complemented by a separately cast panther.

Accession Number

MAR.M.204-1912 (Applied Arts)
(Reference Number: 14046; Input Date: 2000-10-11 / Last Edit: 2009-01-31)

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