Canada General Service Medal, with bar for Fenian Raid 1866, awarded to Gunner C. F. Hartlen 1899Image["Canada General Service Medal, 1899"]
Obverse, a bust of Queen Victoria with veilImage["Canada General Service Medal, 1899"]
Reverse, Canadian flag surrounded by a maple wreath
Canada General Service Medal, 1899
Colonial Canada's nineteenth-century history did not lack secessionist movements, all ultimately unsucessful. One of the more serious threats was that posed by the Fenian Brotherhood, also known as the Irish National Militia, a body that gathered an increasing amount of support in the Northern United States, support which with the end of the American Civil War often came in the form of disbanded military contingents looking for a new war to fight.
Such men were offered their wish by a Fenian self-proclaimed Colonel by the name of O'Neil, who in 1866 used a large force of such men to attempt an invasion of British Canada. The Fenian army was dispersed by a single engagement with Canadian forces and mostly arrested on their return to the USA. O'Neil would attempt the same thing again with equal lack of success twice in 1870.
This medal was awarded in 1899 to those who had fought the Fenians in any of these raids or the related Red River expedition. This one was awarded to Gunner C. F. Hartlen of the Halifax Garrison Artillery. Lester Watson purchased it at some point before 1928.